Historical Sites in Makkah


Makkah is the blessed city which is the most beloved land in the sight of Allah and the chosen location of His House. It was here that Muhammad (P.B.U.H), the last prophet and leader for all of humanity, was born and began his Prophethood. The Ka’bah, also known as Baytullah (Allah’s House), was the first structure built for humans to worship Allah. The small, cubed building may not be as large as other iconic structures, but its influence on history and humanity is unparalleled. It serves as the Qibla, which is the direction in which all Muslims pray five times a day.

Explore Makkah Al Mukaramah, the most sacred area on the planet, and learn about the religious and historical sites you must see during your Umrah.

1. Jabal Al Nour (The Mountain of Light):

Called the “Mountain of Light” or “Hill of Illumination,” Jabal Al Nour is famous for its Hira cave, where the Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) received the first of his many revelations. This rocky peak is visible for many kilometers around. Its significance in Islamic history, along with soaring views of Makkah and the Holy Mosque from its summit, make Jabal Al Nour a popular spot for pilgrims.

2. Ghar Hira (The Cave of Hira):

Jabal al-Hira or Ghar Hira (the cave of Hira), lies about two miles from the Ka’bah. Near the top is a small cave, a little less than four meters in length and a little more than one and a half meters in width. It was from here that the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) received the first revelations of the Holy Quran. Pilgrims climb to the Cave of Hira daily during Umrah and Hajj season to see the place where Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) received the first revelation of Quran.

3. Ghar Thawr/Jabl Thawr (The Cave of Thawr):

Jabal al-Thawr (Mount Thawr) is the mountain that contains the cave in which the Prophet (P.B.U.H) and Abu Bakr (R.A) sought refuge for three days and nights from the Quraysh, as they left Makkah and emigrated to Madinah.

4. Mount Arafat:

Mount Arafat, also known as Jabal Al-Rahmah (the mountain of mercy), is where pilgrims head to from Mina on the ninth day of Hajj, holding prayers and reciting the Qur’an. At the end of his life, Prophet Muhammad presented his final sermon to the Muslims who had accompanied him on the Hajj. If a pilgrim does not spend the afternoon on Mount Arafat, their Hajj is considered invalid. Arafat is a plain located around 20 km southeast of Makkah, and it is around 70 meters tall.

5. Mina:

Mina, five to seven kilometres east of the Masjid al-Haram is where Hajj pilgrims sleep overnight on the 8th, 11th, 12th (and some even on the 13th) of Dhul Hijjah. Also known as the Tent City. Mina is best known for the role it plays during the Hajj. More than 100,000 air-conditioned tents that can house more than 3 million people provide temporary accommodation to visiting pilgrims.

6. Muzdalifah:

The plain of Muzdalifah, where Hajj pilgrims arrive after sunset from Arafat on the 9th Dhul Hijjah (second day of Hajj). Is an open venue near Makkah Al Mukaramah linked with the Hajj. It’s halfway between Mina and Arafat. And the pilgrims spend a night in it after leaving Arafat, then they perform the Maghrib and Isha prayers on Friday and gather pebbles in it to throw stones at Mina, and the pilgrims stay in it until the next morning on Eid al-Adha, when they leave for Mina.

7. Jamarat:

The Jamarat are three stone pillars that are pelted as part of the Hajj rite in remembrance of the Prophet Ibraheem (A.S). They symbolize the three places where Ibraheem () pelted the Shaitan (Satan) with stones as he tried to convince him not to sacrifice his son Ismail (A.S) The three pillars are known as ‘Jamarat-al-Ula,’ ‘Jamarat-al-Wusta,’ and ‘Jamarat-al-Aqaba,’ respectively.

8. Al-Safa and Al-Marwah:

Safa and Marwah are the two mountains between which Hajra (A.S) rushed seven times to see if she could spot any water or anyone from whom she could get some in order to give to her infant Ismail (A.S). This action is copied by all pilgrims performing Hajj or Umrah and is known as Sa’ee. The strip of ground between Safa and Marwah is referred to as the Mas’aa. The distance between the mountains of Safa and Marwah is approximately 450 meters which means that the seven trips taken amount to roughly 1.96 miles (3.15 km).

9. Cemetery of Mu’aala:

The Mu’aala Cemetery is the main cemetery of Makkah and consists of two sections with a road between them, and a tunnel connecting the two parts. The wife of the last Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H), Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her) his grandfather and ancestors are buried here. All the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who died during the Makkan period (before the “hijrah”) as well as numerous scholars are buried here.

10.  Mosque Aisha (RA):

The Masjid is approximately 7 to 8 km south of Makkah and is closest to the boundary on the road of Madinah. The Mosque Aisha, also known as Masjid al-Taneem, is where Ummul-Mumineen Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) went to enter Ihram for Umrah after the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) instructed her to do so at the farewell Hajj. Residents of Makkah who desire to undertake Umrah visit this mosque to enter the state of Ihram and complete the condition of traveling for Umrah before returning to Makkah (for Umrah).

11. Namirah Mosque:

Masjid al-Namirah, located in Wadi Uranah, marks the location where the Prophet (P.B.U.H) camped before delivering his final sermon on the plain of Arafat. During Hajj, on the Day of Arafat, a sermon is delivered by the Imam of the mosque before Dhuhr and Asr prayers are performed together.

12. Bay’ah Mosque:

This Masjid, close to Mina, commemorates the spot where the Ansar of Madinah pledged their allegiance to the Prophet (P.B.U.H). The group included leaders of the Aws and Khazraj tribes of Madinah and were twelve in number. The second such pledge (Bay’ah Aqaba Thaaniya) took place the following year, the thirteenth year after the Prophet (P.B.U.H) proclaimed his Prophethood.

13. Al-Jinn Mosque:

The mosque of the Jinn is a mosque in Mecca. It is also known as the Mosque of Allegiance and the Mosque of Guards (Masjid Haras). The mosque is built at a place where a group of Jinn gathered one night to hear the recitation of Holy Quran. Prophet (peace be upon him) drew the line for his companion Abdullah bin Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him) to sit, after he was commanded by Allah to recite Quran to the Jinns. Prophet (pbuh) later met the leaders of these Jinns and accepted their embrace of Islam.

14.  Al-Khayf Mosque:

Masjid-Al-Khayf is located at the foothills in the southern part of Mina. Quite close to the smallest Jamarat, the mosque is at the spot where Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and many other Prophets before him performed Salah.

15. Hudaibiyah Mosque:

Masjid al-Hudaibiyah is a mosque that marks the location of the treaty of Hudaibiyah, a peace agreement between the Prophet (P.B.U.H) and the Quraysh tribe of Makkah. This 10-year peace treaty allowed Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and his companions to return to Makkah the following year in a peaceful pilgrimage later known as the “first pilgrimage”.

16.  Al Saggaf Palace:

It is one of the oldest buildings in Makkah and is located along Abtah Street in Muabada district. Built by Ibrahim Al-Saggaf, the palace is distinguished for its Islamic architecture and engravings.

17. Makkah Library:

Do not miss out on the opportunity to visit one of the most important libraries in Islamic history, located at the birthplace of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The library is visited by students & researchers from across the world, and houses approximately more than 350,000 rare books and manuscripts, making it a prominent landmark in Makkah.

18. Kiswa Factory:

Established in 1397 AH, the Kiswa factory consists of many divisions specialising in dyeing, weaving, embroidery, and assembly. There are various phases involved in the making of kiswa – the cloth that covers the Holy Kaaba – starting with the testing of the quality of the silk in a lab prior to the dyeing process. This establishment is one of the prominent landmarks of Makkah and provides housing for around 200 craftsmen.

19. Abraj Al Bait:

The Abraj Al-Bait is a government-owned complex of seven skyscraper hotels in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. These towers are a part of the King Abdulaziz Endowment Project that aims to modernize the city in catering to its pilgrims. The central hotel tower, the Makkah Clock Royal Tower, has the world’s largest clock face and is the third-tallest building and fifth-tallest freestanding structure in the world. The clock tower contains the Clock Tower Museum that occupies the top four floors of the tower.

20. Two Holy Mosques Architecture Exhibition:

Over the centuries, the Grand Mosque in Makkah and Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah have witnessed many changes. To chart their evolution, the Two Holy Mosques Architecture Exhibition was established in 1999 and located in Makkah’s Umm Al-Joud district; it aims to display a history of unique architectural designs and treasures from two of Islam’s holiest mosques. If you are a fan of Islamic history, do not miss the opportunity to visit this wonderful museum, one of Makkah’s most popular destinations.

21. Assalamu Alaika Ayyuha Annabi Museum:

A picturesque and outstanding museum has been founded by Dr. Nasir Al-Qurashy Al-Zahrani in Makkah for the sole purpose of telling the true and full story of the Prophet’s life (peace be upon him). The museum is currently situated in Makkah and welcomes group visitors through reservations only, free of charge.